Skip to main content

Human IFN-Beta ELISA Kit

Hero Region

Human IFN-Beta ELISA Kit

Catalog Number: 41410

This well-cited ELISA quantitates IFN-Beta in tissue culture media (TCM) with an LLOQ of 50 pg/ml. Recombinant Human IFN-Beta 1a expressed in mammalian cells is provided as the standard.


Product Name: VeriKine Human Interferon-Beta ELISA Kit (TCM)


Pack Size
Product Info

Matrix Compatibility Tissue Culture Media
Assay Range 50 - 4000 pg/ml
Assay Length 3 hours, 15 minutes
Specificity Human IFN-Beta


The VeriKine Human IFN-Beta ELISA Kit has been developed to measure levels of Human IFN-Beta in buffers or tissue culture media (TCM) samples by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The kit is based on an ELISA with streptavidin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB) is the substrate. The assay is based on the international reference standard for Human IFN-Beta provided by the National Institutes of Health.


*For a more sensitive TCM-compatible ELISA, we recommend our Human IFN-Beta ELISA Kit, High Sensitivity (Cat. No. 41435-1).


*For complex biological matrices such as plasma, healthy sera, and disease sera, we recommend our Human IFN-Beta Serum ELISA Kit, High Sensitivity (Cat. No. 41415-1).



Inter-Assay: ≤ 8%

Intra-Assay: ≤ 8%


No cross-reactivity against

  • Human IFN-Alpha, IFN-Gamma
  • Mouse or rat IFN-Beta
Synonyms Human IFNB, Human Beta Interferon, Human Fibroblast IFN, Human IFN Beta, Human Fibroblast Interferon, Human Beta IFN, Human Type I Interferon Beta, Human IFN B
Storage 2-8°C
Expiration Date One year from date of manufacture
Shipping Condition Wet Ice



Materials Provided:

  • Pre-coated microtiter plate(s)
  • Plate Sealers
  • Wash Solution Concentrate
  • Human IFN-Beta Standard, 100,000 pg/ml
  • Sample Diluent 
  • Antibody Concentrate 
  • HRP Conjugate Concentrate 
  • Concentrate Diluent
  • TMB Substrate Solution
  • Stop Solution


Additional Materials Required (Not Provided)

  • Microplate reader capable of reading an OD at a wavelength of 450 nm
  • Variable volume microtiter pipettes
  • Adjustable multichannel pipette (50-300 μl)
  • Reagent reservoirs
  • Wash bottle or plate washing system
  • Distilled or deionized water
  • Serological pipettes (1, 5, 10 or 25 ml)
  • Disposable pipette tips (polypropylene)
  • Plate shaker

Tech Info & Data


Following secretion, Interferon Beta binds to type I interferon receptors on proximal or distal cells activating the JAK1-STAT signaling pathway. Activation of this signal transduction pathway leads to the expression of 2’-5’ oligoadenylate synthetases (2’5’ OAS), protein kinase R (PKR), MxA proteins, and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7). The upregulation of IRF-7 expression can exert positive feedback on IFN-β production, whereas the induction of 2’5’ OAS activates a latent endonuclease known as RNase L. RNase L cleaves both viral and cellular single-stranded mRNA, thereby limiting viral replication and dissemination.

IFN-beta is present as a single gene in humans. The biological activity of IFN-beta can be functionally similar when compared to other type I IFNs, but can also exhibit distinct gene expression patterns as compared to IFN-alpha. In vitro binding studies suggest that IFN-beta binds to the Type I IFN receptor with higher affinity than the other Type I IFNs and this may regulate receptor internalization in a different manner. IFN-β has long been known to inhibit viral replication as part of the body’s innate antiviral response and it is currently used as a therapeutic for treatment of relapsing-remittent multiple sclerosis and some tumors.


118 Citations:
  1. Salzmann, R.J.S. et al., (2024), "Increased type-I interferon level is associated with liver damage and fibrosis in primary sclerosing cholangitis", Hepatol Commun., 8(3):e0380, PIMD: 38358371, DOI: 10.1097/HC9.0000000000000380, (link)

  2. TBK1-stabilized ZNF268a recruits SETD4 to methylate TBK1 for efficient interferon signaling", J Biol Chem., 105428, PMID: 37926288, DOI: 10.1016/j.bc.2023.105428 (link)

  3. Boeszoermenyi, A. et al., (2023), "A conformation-locking inhibitor of SLC15A4 with RASL proteostatic anti-inflammatory activity", Nat Commun., 14(1):6626, PMID: 37863876, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-42070-3 (link)

  4. Gonzalez Lopez Ledesma, MM, et al., (2023), "Dengue virus NS5 degrades ERC1 during infection to antagonize NF-kB activation", PNAS, 120(23):e2220005120, PMID: 37252973, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2220005120 (link)

  5. Haikerwal, A. et al., (2022), "Inhibition of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Using Small Interfering RNAs", Viruses, 14(8):1628, PMID: 35893693, DOI: 10.3390/v14081628 (link)

  6. Rosa, TLSA et al., (2022), "The Type I Interferon Pathway Is Upregulated in the Cutaneous Lesions and Blood Multibacillary Leprosy Patients With Erythema Nodosum Leprosum", Front. Med., 9:899998, PMID: 35733868, DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2022.899998 (link)
  7. van Tol, S., et al., (2022), "Ubiquitination of Ebloa virus VP35 at lysine 309 regulates viral transcription and assembly", PLoS Pathogens,18(5):e1010532, PMID: 35533195, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010532 (link)
  8. Li, H. et al., (2022), "AXL targeting restores PD-1 blockade sensitivity of STK11/LKB1 mutant NSCLC through expansion of TCF1+ CD8 T cells". Cell Reports Medicine, 3:100554, DOI: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2022.100554 (link)
  9. Abt, E.R., et al., (2022), "Reprogramming of nucleotide metabolism by interferon confers dependence on the replication stress response pathway in pancreatic cancer cells", Cell Reports, 38:110236, DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.110236 (link)
  10. Wang L, et al., (2021), FIP200 restricts RNA virus infection by facilitating RIG-I activation, Commun. Biol., 4:921, DOI: 10.1038/242003-021-02450-1 (link)
  11. Lee, Kyoung Jin, et al. (2020). Real-time monitoring of oncolytic VSV properties in a novel in vitro microphysiological system containing 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. PLOS One, 13 pgs. PMID: 32628693. (link)
  12. Saikh, Kamal, et al. (2020). A small molecule inhibitor of MyD88 exhibits broad spectrum antiviral activity by up regulation of type I interferon. Antiviral Research, 16 pgs. PMID: 32621945. (link)
  13. Qin, Zhihua, et al. (2019). The dNTPase Activity of SAMHD1 Is Important for Its Suppression of Innate Immune Responses in Differentiated Monocytic Cells. JBC, 22 pgs. PMID: 31914403. (link)
  14. Brazee, Patricia, et al. (2019). Linear ubiquitin assembly complex regulates lung epithelial driven responses during influenza infection. JCI, 36 pgs. PMID: 31714898. (link)
  15. Skelton, Raegan, et al. (2019). Contribution of Host Immune Responses Against Influenza D Virus Infection Toward Secondary Bacterial Infection in a Mouse Model. Viruses, 12 pgs. PMID: 31671825. (link)
  16. Park, Areum, et al. (2019). HCMV-encoded US7 and US8 act as antagonists of innate immunity by distinctively targeting TLR-signaling pathways. Nature Communications, 15 pgs. PMID: 31604943. (link)
  17. Maurer, et al. (2019). Suicide gene‑armed measles vaccine virus for the treatment of AML. International Joural of Oncology, 12 pgs. PMID: 31268165. (link)
  18. Hu, et al. (2019). Zika virus antagonizes interferon response in patients and disrupts RIG-I-MAVS interaction through its CARD-TM domains. BMC Cell and Bioscience, 15 pgs. PMID: 31183075. (link)
  19. You, et al. (2019). Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Tegument Protein UL46 Inhibits TANK-Binding Kinase 1-Mediated Signaling. mBio, 10 pgs. PMID: 31113902. (link)
  20. Kuse, Nozomi, et al. (2019). Priming of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells with strong functional properties from naïve T cells. EBioMedicine, 11 pgs. PMID: 30956171. (link)
  21. Skjesol, et al. (2019). The TLR4 adaptor TRAM controls the phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria by interacting with the Rab11-family interacting protein 2. PLOS Pathogens, 30 pgs. PMID: 30883606. (link)
  22. Schau, et al. (2019). Targeted delivery of TLR3 agonist to tumor cells with single chain antibody fragment-conjugated nanoparticles induces type I-interferon response and apoptosis. Scientific Reports, 15 pgs. PMID: 30824859. (link)
  23. Chabanon, et al. (2019). PARP inhibition enhances tumor cell-intrinsic immunity in ERCC1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer. JCI, 19 pgs. PMID: 30589644. (link)
  24. Zavala, Kathryn, et al. (2018). Intrinsic Activation of the Vitamin D Antimicrobial Pathway by M. leprae Infection is Inhibited by Type I IFN. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 15 pgs. PMID: 30300363. (link)
  25. John, Sinu, et al. (2018). IFIT1 Exerts Opposing Regulatory Effects on the Inflammatory and Interferon Gene Programs in LPS-Activated Human Macrophages. Cell Reports, 19 pgs. PMID: 30282041. (link)
  26. Feng, Tingting, et al. (2018). Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme UBE2J1 Negatively Modulates Interferon Pathway and Promotes RNA Virus Infection. Virology Journal, 9 pgs. PMID: 30157886. (link)
  27. Zhang, Yugen, et al. (2018). RIG-I Detects Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Transcripts in a RNA Polymerase III-Independent Manner. mBio, 17 pgs. PMID: 29970461. (link)
  28. Ding, Siyuan, et al. (2018). STAG2 deficiency induces interferon responses via cGAS-STING pathway and restricts virus infection. Nature, 8 pgs. PMID: 29662124. (link)
  29. Thube, Milind, et al. (2018). Differences in Type I Interferon Response in Human Lung Epithelial Cells Infected by Highly Pathogenic H5N1 and Low Pathogenic H11N1 Avian Influenza Viruses. Virus Genes, 12 pgs. PMID: 29574656. (link)
  30. Haque, Nazmul, et al. (2018). ZFR Coordinates Crosstalk Between RNA Decay and Transcription in Innate Immunity. Nature Communications, 13 pgs. PMID: 29559679. (link)
  31. Chan, Chi-Ping, et al. (2018). Antiviral Activity of Double-Stranded RNA-Binding Protein PACT Against Influenza A Virus Mediated via Suppression of Viral RNA Polymerase. Faseb Journal, 14 pgs. PMID: 29513570. (link)
  32. Kim, Sojung, et al. (2018). CRISPR RNAs Trigger Innate Immune Responses in Human Cells. Genome Research, 8 pgs. PMID: 29472270. (link)
  33. Choi, Hyun Jin, et al. (2018). Human Cytomegalovirus-Encoded US9 Targets MAVS and STING Signaling to Evade Type I Interferon Immune Responses. Nature Communications, 16 pgs. PMID: 29317664. (link)
  34. Ji, Zhenglin, et al. (2018). The Scorpion Venom Peptide Smp76 Inhibits Viral Infection by Regulating Type-I Interferon Response. Virologica Sinica, 26 pgs. PMID: no PMID. (link)
  35. Bressy, Christian, et al. (2018). Cell Cycle Arrest in G2/M Phase Enhances Replication of Interferon-Sensitive Cytoplasmic RNA Viruses via Inhibition of Antiviral Gene Expression. JVI, 55 pgs. PMID: no PMID. (link)
  36. Bugge, Marit, et al. (2017). Surface Toll-like receptor 3 expression in metastatic intestinal epithelial cells induces inflammatory cytokine production and promotes invasiveness. JBC, 18 pgs. PMID: 28717003. (link)
  37. Hergovits, Sabine, et al. (2017). Oncostatin M Induces RIG-I and MDA5 Expression and Enhances the Double-Stranded RNA Response in Fibroblasts. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 13 pgs. PMID: 28560754. (link)
  38. Huang, Li, et al. (2017). Encephalomyocarditis Virus 3C Protease Attenuates Type I Interferon Production Through Disrupting TANK-TBK1-IKK-epsilon-IRF3 Complex. Biochemical Journal, 30 pgs. PMID: 28487378. (link)
  39. Pervolaraki, Kalliopi, et al. (2017). Type I and Type III Interferons Display Different Dependency on Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases to Mount an Antiviral State in the Human Gut. Frontiers in Immunology, 16 pgs. PMID: 28484457. (link)
  40. Zhao, Hongjuan, et al. (2017). The Immunomodulatory Anticancer Agent, RRx-001, Induces an Interferon Response Through Epigenetic Induction of Viral Mimicry. Clinical Epigenetics, 11 pgs. PMID: 28149332. (link)
  41. Iqbal, Jawed, et al. (2016). Histone H2B-IFI16 Recognition of Nuclear Herpesviral Genome Induces Cytoplasmic Interferon-beta Responses. PLOS Pathogens, 40 pgs. PMID: 27764250. (link)
  42. Singh, Susmita, et al. (2016). HIV Interferes with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen Presentation in Human Dendritic Cells. The American Journal of Pathology, 11 pgs. PMID: 27746182. (link)
  43. Dold, Catherine, et al. (2016). Application of Interferon Modulators to Overcome Partial Resistance of Human Ovarian Cancers to VSV-GP Oncolytic Viral Therapy. Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics, 11 pgs. PMID: 27738655. (link)
  44. Ma, Tong-Cui, et al. (2016). Soybean-Derived Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI) Inhibits HIV Replication in Macrophages. Scientific Reports, 10 pgs. PMID: 27734899. (link)
  45. Corredor, Juan, et al. (2016). N-Myc Expression Enhances the Oncolytic Effects of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in Human Neuroblastoma Cells. Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics, 12 pgs. PMID: 27626059. (link)
  46. Millrine, David, et al. (2016). Rabex-5 is a lenalidomide target molecule that negatively regulates TLR-induced type 1 IFN production. PNAS, 6 pgs. PMID: 27601648. (link)
  47. Pourcelot, Marie, et al. (2016). The Golgi Apparatus Acts as a Platform for TBK1 Activation After Viral RNA Sensing. BMC Biology, 17 pgs. PMID: 27538435. (link)
  48. Huang, Li-Yun, et al. (2016). Poly(I:C) Induces Human Lung Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction by Disrupting Tight Junction Expression of Claudin-5. PLOS One, 16 pgs. PMID: 27504984. (link)
  49. Sayes, Fadel, et al. (2016). CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity are Protective Against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. PLOS Pathogens, 27 pgs. PMID: 27467705. (link)
  50. Tremblay, Nicolas, et al. (2016). Spliceosome SNRNP200 Promotes Viral RNA Sensing and IRF3 Activation of Antiviral Response. PLOS Pathogens, 35 pgs. PMID: 27454487. (link)
  51. Assetta, Benedetta, et al. (2016). JC Polyomavirus Infection of Primary Human Renal Epithelial Cells is Controlled by a Type I IFN-Induced Response. mBio,  11 pgs. PMID: 27381292. (link)
  52. Dornan, Mark, et al. (2016). First-in-Class Small Molecule Potentiators of Cancer Virotherapy. Scientific Reports, 12 pgs. PMID: 27226390. (link)
  53. GuhaSarkar, Dwijit, et al. (2016). Systemic AAV9-IFNβ gene delivery treats highly invasive glioblastoma. Neuro-Oncology, 11 pgs. PMID: 27194146. (link)
  54. Pillai, Padmini, et al. (2016). Mx1 Reveals Innate Pathways to Antiviral Resistance and Lethal Influenza Disease. Science, 30 pgs. PMID: 27102485. (link)
  55. Tatematsu, Megumi, et al. (2016). Raftlin Controls Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TLR4 Internalization and TICAM-1 Signaling in a Cell Type-Specific Manner. Journal of Immunology, 13 pgs. PMID: 27022195. (link)
  56. Crisci, Elisa, et al. (2016). Complement Opsonization Promotes HSV-2 Infection of Human Dendritic Cells. JVI, 42 pgs. PMID: 26937039. (link)
  57. Saenger, Sandra (2016). Identification of KSRP as a Novel Protein Regulator of the Interferon-Inducible RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKR) by Quantitative Mass Spectrometry. Humboldt University, 143 pgs. PMID: no PMID. (link)
  58. Lee, Hye-Sook, et al. (2015). Abasic Pivot Substitution Harnesses Target Specificity of RNA Interference. Nature Communications, 14 pgs. PMID: 26679372. (link)
  59. Zhu, Tiantian, et al. (2015). Anti-Inflammatory Activity Comparison Among Scropoliosides-Catalpol Derivatives with 6-O-Substituted Cinnamyl Moieties. Molecules, 14 pgs. PMID: 26540037. (link)
  60. Villenave, Remi, et al. (2015). Induction and Antagonism of Antiviral Responses in Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Infected Pediatric Airway Epithelium. JVI 10 pgs. PMID: 26423940. (link)
  61. Dauletbaev, Nurlan, et al. (2015). Stimulation of the RIG-I/MAVS Pathway by Polyinosinic:Polycytidylic Acid Upregulates IFN-β in Airway Epithelial Cells with Minimal Costimulation of IL-8. Journal of Immunology, 14 pgs. PMID: 26283481. (link)
  62. Lubick, Kirk, et al. (2015). Flavivirus Antagonism of Type I Interferon Signaling Reveals Prolidase as a Regulator of IFNAR1 Surface Expression. Cell Host & Microbe, 39 pgs. PMID: 26159719. (link)
  63. Aalbers, Caroline, et al. (2015). Preclinical Potency and Biodistribution Studies of an AAV 5 Vector Expressing Human Interferon-Beta (ART-I02) for Local Treatment of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. PLOS One, 17 pgs. PMID: 26107769. (link)
  64. Huang, Cheng, et al. (2015). Highly Pathogenic New World and Old World Human Arenaviruses Induce Distinct Interferon Responses in Human Cells. JVI, 10 pgs. PMID: 25926656. (link)
  65. Yu, Sheng-Jie, et al. (2015). Cell-Penetrating Peptide Derived From Human Eosinophil Cationic Protein Inhibits Mite Allergen Der p 2 Induced Inflammasome Activation. PLOS One, 12 pgs. PMID: 25909189. (link)
  66. Hosein, Abdel N, et al. (2015). A functional in vitro model of heterotypic interactions reveals a role for interferon-positive carcinoma associated fibroblasts in breast cancer. BMC Cancer, 11 pgs. PMID: 25884794. (link)
  67. Lin, Chao-Jen, et al. (2015). Polygonum cuspidatum and Its Active Components Inhibit Replication of the Influenza Virus Through Toll-Like Receptor 9-Induced Interferon Beta Expression. PLOS One, 13 pgs. PMID: 25658356. (link)
  68. Scheuplein, Vivian A, et al. (2015). High secretion of interferons by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells upon recognition of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. JVI, 11 pgs. PMID: 25609809. (link)
  69. Wu, Zeguang, et al. (2015). Natural killer cells can inhibit the transmission of human cytomegalovirus in cell culture by using mechanisms from innate and adaptive immune responses. JVI, 12 pgs. PMID: 25540381. (link)
  70. Ranjan, Priya, et al. (2015). NLRC5 interacts with RIG-I to induce a robust antiviral response against influenza virus infection. European Journal of Immunology, 15 pgs. PMID: 25404059. (link)
  71. Bonechi, Elena, et al. (2014). Increased CXCL10 Expression in MS MSCs and Monocytes is Unaffected by AHSCT. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, 9 pgs. PMID: 25493279. (link)
  72. Folcher, Marc, et al. (2014). Mind-Controlled Transgene Expression by Wireless-Powered Optogenetic Designer Cell Implant. Nature Communications, 11 pgs. PMID: 25386727. (link)
  73. Gianni, Tatiana, et al. (2014). The Epithelial alpha-v-beta-3-Integrin Boosts the MYD88-Dependent TLR2 Signaling in Response to Viral and Bacterial Components. PLOS Pathogens, 18 pgs. PMID: 25375272. (link)
  74. Lopez-Pelaez, Marta, et al. (2014). Protein Kinase IKK-Beta-Catalyzed Phosphorylation of IRF5 at Ser462 Induces its Dimerization and Nuclear Translocation in Myeloid Cells. PNAS, 6 pgs. PMID: 25326418. (link)
  75. Zhang, Yugen, et al. (2014). The DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, is essential for induction of IFN-β during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Journal of Immunology, 12 pgs. PMID: 25070851. (link)
  76. Gorvel, Laurent, et al. (2014). Intracellular Bacteria Interfere with Dendritic Cell Functions: Role of the Type I Interferon Pathway. PLOS One, 11 pgs. PMID: 24915541. (link)
  77. Skrnjug, Ivana, et al. (2014). The Mucosal Adjuvant Cyclic di-AMP Exerts Immune Stimulatory Effects on Dendritic Cells and Macrophages. PLOS One, 9 pgs. PMID: 24755640. (link)
  78. Liu, Hongya, et al. (2014). HSV-2 increases TLR4-dependent phosphorylated IRFs and IFN-β induction in cervical epithelial cells. PLOS One, 7 pgs. PMID: 24722640. (link)
  79. Xia, Mia, et al. (2014). Mitophagy enhances oncolytic measles virus replication by mitigating DDX58/RIG-I-like receptor signaling. JVI, 13 pgs. PMID: 24574393. (link)
  80. Batenchuk, Cory (2014). Development of a Mathematical Model to Understand, Design, & Improve Oncolytic Virus Therapies. University of Ottowa, 242 pgs. PMID: no PMID. (link)
  81. Schijf, Marcel, et al. (2013). Respiratory Syncytial Virus Induced Type I IFN Production by pDC is Regulated by RSV-Infected Airway Epithelial Cells, RSV-Exposed Monocytes, and Virus Specific Antibodies. PLOS One, 18 pgs. PMID: 24303065. (link)
  82. Pham, Van Loi, et al. (2013). Pathogenicity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Immunocompromised Cynomolgus Macaques. PLOS One, 13 pgs. PMID: 24086663. (link)
  83. Calven, Jenny, et al. (2013). Rhinovirus and dsRNA Induce RIG-I-Like Receptors and Expression of Interferon Beta and Lambda_1 in Human Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells. PLOS One, 11 pgs. PMID: 23658644. (link)
  84. Stone, Amy, et al. (2013). Hepatitis C virus pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggers production of lambda-interferons by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells. PLOS One, 13 pgs. PMID: 23637605. (link)
  85. Doganay, Sultan (2013). Single Molecule Investigation of Antiviral Signaling. University of Illinois, 106 pgs. PMID: no PMID. (link)
  86. Osterlund, Pamela, et al. (2012). Incoming influenza A virus evades early host recognition, while influenza B virus induces interferon expression directly upon entry. JVI, 11 pgs. PMID: 22855501. (link)
  87. Patel, Mickey V, et al. (2012). Uterine epithelial cells specifically induce interferon-stimulated genes in response to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid independently of estradiol. PLOS One, 11 pgs. PMID: 22558189. (link)
  88. Xing, Junji, et al. (2012). Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Tegument Protein US11 Downmodulates the RLR Signaling Pathway via Direct Interaction with RIG-I and MDA-5. JVI, 14 pgs. PMID: 22301138. (link)
  89. Tournadre, et al. (2012). Immature Muscle Precursors are a Source of Interferon-beta in Myositis: Role of Toll-like Receptor 3 Activation and Contribution to HLA Class I Up-Regulation. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 9 pgs. PMID: 22094963. (link)
  90. Laredj and Beard (2011). Adeno-Associated Virus Activates an Innate Immune Response in Normal Human Cells but Not in Osteosarcoma Cells. JVI, 11 pgs. PMID: 21957288. (link)
  91. Muto, et al. (2011). Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E5 Protein Induces Expression of Beta Interferon Through Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 in Human Keratinocytes. JVI, 11 pgs. PMID: 21389130. (link)
  92. Sominanda, Ajith, et al. (2010). Inhibition of endogenous interferon beta by neutralizing antibodies against recombinant interferon beta. Archives of Neurology, 7 pgs. PMID: 20837854. (link)
  93. Wang, Penghua, et al (2010). Caspase-12 controls West Nile virus infection via the viral RNA receptor RIG-I. Nature, 21 pgs. PMID: 20818395. (link)
  94. Dzopalic, Tanja, et al. (2010). Loxoribine, a selective Toll-like receptor 7 agonist, induces maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and stimulates their Th-1- and Th-17-polarizing capability. International Imunopharmacology, 6 pgs. PMID: 20817120. (link)
  95. Frias, Amena, et al. (2010). Intestinal Epithelia Activate Anti-Viral Signaling via Intracellular Sensing of Rotavirus Structural Components. Mucosal Immunology, 11 pgs. PMID: 20664578. (link)
  96. Liu, Xin-Yi, et al. (2010). Tom70 mediates activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 on mitochondria. Cell Research, 18 pgs. PMID: 20628368. (link)
  97. Mosoian, Arevik, et al. (2010). Prothymosin-α inhibits HIV-1 via Toll-like receptor 4-mediated type I interferon induction. PNAS, 6 pgs. PMID: 20479248. (link)
  98. Liang, Xueqing, et al (2010). Toll-like receptor 9 signaling by CpG-B oligodeoxynucleotides induces an apoptotic pathway in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells. Blood Journal. PMID: 20339095. (link)
  99. Shi, He-Xin, et al. (2010). Positive Regulation of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Activation by Herc5 via ISG15 Modification. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 13 pgs. PMID: 20308324. (link)
  100. Takahashi, Ken, et al. (2010). Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense hepatitis C virus–infected cells, produce interferon, and inhibit infection. PNAS, 6 pgs. PMID: 20231459. (link)
  101. Schilte, Clementine, et al. (2010). Type I IFN controls chikungunya virus via its action on nonhematopoietic cells. JEM, 14 pgs. PMID: 20123960. (link)
  102. Fan, Lina, et al. (2010). Z Proteins of New World Arenaviruses Bind RIG-I and Interfere with Type I Interferon Induction. JVI, 7 pgs. PMID: 20007272. (link)
  103. Osterlund, Pamela, et al. (2010). Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza A Virus Induces Weak Cytokine Responses in Human Macrophages and Dendritic Cells and Is Highly Sensitive to the Antiviral Actions of Interferons. JVI, 9 pgs. PMID: 19939920. (link)
  104. Zhu, Jiangao, et al. (2009). The TLR9-MyD88 pathway is critical for adaptive immune responses to adeno-associated virus gene therapy vectors in mice. JCI, 11 pgs. PMID: 19587448. (link)
  105. Sadik, Christian, et al. (2009). Activation of Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 via Toll-Like Receptor 3 and Immunomodulatory Functions Detected in A549 Lung Epithelial Cells Exposed to Misplaced U1-snRNA. Nucleic Acids Research, 16 pgs. PMID: 19541850. (link)
  106. Beck, Lisa A, et al. (2009). Phenotype of atopic dermatitis subjects with a history of eczema herpeticum. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 22 pgs. PMID: 19541356. (link)
  107. Schirmer, et al. (2009). Local cytokine concentrations and oxygen pressure are related to maturation of the collateral circulation in humans. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. PMID: 19497439. (link)
  108. Lee, et al. (2009). The major outer membrane protein of a periodontopathogen induces IFN-beta and IFN-stimulated genes in monocytes via lipid raft and TANK-binding kinase 1/IFN regulatory factor-3.. Journal of Immunology, pgs. PMID: 19380831. (link)
  109. Vigne, Solenne, et al. (2009). Inhibition of Vaccinia Virus Replication by Two Small Interfering RNAs Targeting B1R and G7L Genes and Their Synergistic Combination with Cidofovir. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 10 pgs. PMID: 19307376. (link)
  110. Yang, Kai, et al. (2009). TRIM21 is essential to sustain IFN regulatory factor 3 activation during antiviral response. Journal of Immunology, 13 pgs. PMID: 19265157. (link)
  111. Chase, Jennifer, et al. (2009). Direct and indirect impairment of human dendritic cell function by virulent Francisella tularensis Schu S4. Infection and Immunity, 16 pgs. PMID: 18981246. (link)
  112. Newcomb, Dawn, et al. (2007). Cooperative effects of rhinovirus and TNF-{alpha} on airway epithelial cell chemokine expression. American Journal of Physiology, 8 pgs. PMID: 17631613. (link)
  113. Lee, et al. (2007). Interferon-beta and adhesion molecules (E-selectin and s-intracellular adhesion molecule-1) are detected in sera from patients with retinal vasculitis and are induced in retinal vascular endothelial cells by Toll-like receptor 3 signalling. British Society for Immunology, 10 pgs. PMID: 17177965. (link)
  114. Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa, et al. (2006). Quantification of Poly(I:C)-Mediated Protection against Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection. JVI, 10 pgs. PMID: 17005677. (link)
  115. Ritter, Mirko, et al. (2005). Characterization of Toll-like receptors in primary lung epithelial cells: strong impact of the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) on the regulation of Toll-like receptors, adaptor proteins and inflammatory response. Journal of Inflammation, 15 pgs. PMID: 16316467. (link)
  116. Prehaud, Christophe, et al. (2005). Virus Infection Switches TLR-3-Positive Human Neurons To Become Strong Producers of Beta Interferon. JVI, 12 pgs. PMID: 16188991. (link)
  117. Emori, Yutaka, et al. (2004). Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by Z-100, an immunomodulator extracted from human-type tubercle bacilli, in macrophages. Journal of General Virology, 11 pgs. PMID: 15302954. (link)
  118. Schmidt, Kerstin N, et al. (2004). APC-independent activation of NK cells by the Toll-like receptor 3 agonist double-stranded RNA. Journal of Immunology, 7 pgs. PMID: 14688319. (link)


Background Literature:

  1. Staehelin et al. (1981) Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 79 (Pestka, ed.), Academic Press, New York, 589-595.

  2. Kelder et al. (1986) Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 119 (Pestka, ed.), Academic Press, New York, 582-587.

  3. Human IFN-β international reference standard provided by the NIH, reference no. Gb23-902-531. Pestka (1986) Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 119 (Pestka, ed.), Academic Press, New York, 14-23.

  4. Moschera et al. (1981) Methods of Enzymology, Vol. 119 (Pestka, ed.), Academic Press, New York, 177-183.


Protocol, Certificate of Analysis (CoA), Safety Data Sheet (SDS)
41410 Protocol (Full)

41410 Protocol (Full)

41410-1 CoA

41410-1 Certificate of Analysis (CoA)

42410-2 CoA

42410-2 Certificate of Analysis (CoA)

41410 SDS

41410 Safety Data Sheet

41410 Product Notice Standard Stock Change

41410 Product Notice Standard Stock Change

41410 Product Notice Standard Reformulation

41410 Product Notice Standard Reformulation